Presenting results and presenting data
Sources on presenting
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here: Guidelines on reporting research - how to make sure you do a
good job of reporting research results.
Mostly there appear to be guidelines in the medical, public health
which stands for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials,
encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT Group to
alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of
randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The main product of CONSORT is
the CONSORT Statement, which is an evidence-based, minimum set of
recommendations for reporting RCTs.
EQUATOR Network website http://www.equator-network.org/
the resource centre for good reporting of health research
studies. The EQUATOR Network is an international initiative
that seeks to enhance reliability and value of medical research
literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting of
stands for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews
and Meta-Analyses. It is an evidence-based minimum set of items for
reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
STROBE - Strengthening
the Reporting of Observational studies
STROBE stands for an international, collaborative initiative of
epidemiologists, methodologists, statisticians, researchers and
journal editors involved in the conduct and dissemination of
the mission of the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with
Nonrandomized Designs (TREND) group is to improve the reporting
standards of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public
These guidelines about presenting results, and other guidelines
about other aspects of publishing, are listed here http://www.nlm.nih.gov/services/research_report_guide.html
But see this 2011 study about medical/public health research:
Bennett C, Khangura S, Brehaut JC, Graham ID, Moher D, et al. (2011)
Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published
Guidance and Reporting Practices. PLoS Med 8(8): e1001069.
This paper says that there seem to be problems
about reporting the quality of survey research. The authors write
"Our own review of 117 published survey studies revealed that many
items were poorly reported: few studies provided the survey or core
questions (35%), reported the validity or reliability of the
instrument (19%), defined the response rate (25%), discussed the
representativeness of the sample (11%), or identified how missing
data were handled (11%)."
This paper says many studies don't report the interventions in much
Susan Michie1, Dean Fixsen, Jeremy M Grimshaw and Martin P Eccles.
Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the
need for a scientific method. Implementation Science 2009,
"Few published intervention evaluations refer to
formal documentation describing the content and delivery of an
intervention and are seldom reported by researchers or practitioners
in enough detail to replicate them [5,6]. Reviews of nearly 1,000
behaviour change outcome studies [7-10] found that interventions
were described in detail in only 5% to 30% of the experimental
Reviewing or critically reading
Evaluating research articles from start to finish. Ellen Girden,
Robert Kabacoff http://books.google.com/books?id=-3ZsyqzKLQwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Tips on how to present results
If you can't find it below, look at Betty Jungs links to graphics
has a great many links about presenting data.
Making data meaningful http://www.unece.org/stats/documents/writing/
from the UN Economic Commission of Europe. How to write, present and
communicate about data.
Communicating Statistics https://gss.civilservice.gov.uk/statistics/presentation-and-dissemination/
"This page brings together resources about communicating and
disseminating official statistics, including guidance documents and
Improving data visualisation for the public sector http://www.improving-visualisation.org/
"This site supports public sector researchers
improve the way that they visualise data, by providing good practice
examples and case studies, practical and step-by-step guides on how
to visualise data, and links to more detailed resources."
BTS’s Guide to Good Statistical Practice http://www.bts.gov/publications/guide_to_good_statistical_practice_in_the_transportation_field/index.html
This is a guide on how to present data analysis and how
to discuss data quality and errors.
Gallery of Data Visualization: The Best and Worst of Statistical
National Center for Educational Statistics, Create a
a site for students, to show how to use various graph
formats. See these two lessons
about bar charts,
about line graphs
Guidelines for Effective Data Presentations http://www.measuredhs.com/publications/publication-od41-other-documents.cfm
Using Graphics to Report Evaluation Results http://learningstore.uwex.edu/Using-Graphics-to-Report-Evaluation-Results-P1022C236.aspx
from University of Wisconsin Extension.
Exploring Data: graphs and numerical summaries http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=1710
CDC's Brief 12 http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/evaluation/index.htm#tabs-811330-3
Using Graphs and Charts to Illustrate Quantitative Data
Visual Literacy Org http://www.visual-literacy.org/
has various demonstrations, documents, etc including this Periodic
Table of Visualization Methods
AEA has a blog stream about data visualization http://aea365.org/blog/?cat=595
Statistical Graphics Section http://stat-computing.org/
section of American Statistical Association. Has section
newsletter and list of links.
Statistics: Power from data. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/toc-tdm/5214718-eng.htm
has a section describing presenting data http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch9/5214821-eng.htm
showing examples of different types of graphs.
Presenting Numerical Data http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/numerical-data/numerical-data
This guide offers practical advice on how to incorporate numerical
information into essays, reports, dissertations, posters and
presentations. The guide outlines the role of text, tables, graphs
and charts as formats for presenting numerical data.
Rougier NP, Droettboom M, Bourne PE (2014) Ten Simple Rules for
Better Figures. PLoS Comput Biol 10(9): e1003833.
Presenting numerical data http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/numerical-data/numerical-data
This page lists a couple of books, as well as web sites, because
these books are so highly recommended.
books by Edward Tufte, especially
Envisioning information, graphics press, 1990
the visual display of quantitative information, graphics
books by William Cleveland, especially
visualizing data , hobart press, 1993
the elements of graphing data, CRC press, 1994
Data visualization http://www.healthworkforceta.org/webinars/data-visualization-strategies-tips-and-tools/
tips and tools, Webinar from Feb 2016.
Data Visualization for Human Perception https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/data-visualization-for-human-perception
by David Few. About effective presentation of data, and why these
things are effective.
Graphing sociology http://thesocietypages.org/graphicsociology/
the author of this page, Laura Noren, presents graphs, charts or
tables and analyzes why they work or don't work.
Census Bureau has examples of data visualizations, and
Sites about general presentation
KU Medical Center page on effective presentations http://www.kumc.edu/SAH/OTEd/jradel/effective.html
has on line basic tutorial for preparing graphics, its an overview.
Advice http://www.cob.sjsu.edu/splane_m/PresentationTips.htm This is not an
easy to read page, but it does have very useful and important
A Conference of Mind and Mouth: The Ultimate Public Speaking
Resource Guide http://www.accuconference.com/resources/public-speaking.aspx
links to speaking and presentation tips
Public Speaking http://www.screentekinc.com/Computer-Resources-Public-Speaking.html
kind of general tips on speaking, and links to other sites.
Hans Rosling shows the best stats you've ever seen http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen.html
Ted talk. A nice demonstration of how to present data.
Here is a summary of his talk http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/six-simple-techniques-for-presenting-data-hans-rosling-ted-2006/
Andrew Gelman, at Columbia http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/
has this presentation on presenting graphics
Prepare charts on line
Tableau public https://public.tableau.com/s/
says you can make charts for free
Tableau is listed here
and this site used it to make a
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HOW TO PREPARE REPORTS
How to Avoid Plagiarism http://www.csub.edu/ssric-trd/howto/plagiarism.htm
by Earl Babbie. Make sure you
follow this advice!
Plain Language.gov http://www.plainlanguage.gov/index.cfm
US Govt, especially see the guidelines
like short sections, useful headings, etc.
Program managers guide to evaluation. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/resource/the-program-managers-guide-to-evaluation-second-edition
Second Edition, 2010 has a chapter on how to report
what you have learned. Starting on page 98. (The printed
page number is 87, but you have to go to page 98)
How to Write a Scholarly Research Report http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=13
by Rudner, Lawrence M. & William D. Schafer
(1999). in Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation,
6(13). Brief introduction and descriptions of sections in a
Writing research papers http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html
general guide for biostat reports, but still useful.
Writing a report http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/670/01/
overall general guide
Links to sites with info about apa style http://www.psywww.com/resource/apacrib.htm
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last updated 2/14/2016
last verified 2/14/2016
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